Green backlash?

10 11 2011

I just read an article about “green marketing” and how the manufacturer should downplay the green aspects of a product because “very few Americans have ever bought stuff because they want to
save the planet.”[1]

And I agree that most people just want their stuff, not a sermon.

But when I hear something along the lines of “we love your fabrics, but we’re looking for a particular shade of …” my heart drops – because I realize the speaker does not really believe that his
fabric choices are making a direct impact on him or his clients.   He does not believe that buying a product that pollutes our groundwater, contributes to global warming, contains chemicals which are known to be harmful to humans (and which might well have long term impacts on him), and all too often employs children who should be in school helping us fight the enormous problems we face – well, he doesn’t believe each purchase simply ensures that the same products will continue to be made!

Because what you buy is what gets produced.   It may be a long, circuitous way of making a
personal impact on you, but it happens nevertheless.

Why don’t people recognize this?

Green lifestyle expert Danny Seo says the main reason people choose not to buy green is:  they’re selfish.[2]  If there is not a tangible benefit to wearing organic cotton, or changing to organic bedding, Seo says people literally will not buy into it.  “All you know is that you have done something better for the planet. We are selfish, and want to know what we are getting out of it. That is why something like organic cotton will never work, because there is no direct link to why people should want to do this.”  And unlike a Prius, organic clothing or bedding isn’t something one can point to and use to improve their status – or promote their “greener than thou” lifestyle.

But Danny Seo doesn’t know about textile processing – because that organic cotton, if processed conventionally, contains chemicals – 27% by weight of the fabric to be exact –  which most definitely will allow you to make a direct link to what people are getting out of it – from asthma and allergies to cancers and worse.

To cite just a few examples:

  • The American Contact Dermatitis Society has an interesting web
    site for people suffering from formaldehyde resins in fabrics[3],
  • studies have found dioxin which leached from clothing – a potent
    carcinogen – on the skin of participants [4]
  • and women working in textile factories which produce acrylic
    fibers have seven times the rate of breast cancer as the normal population[5].

Textile processing uses some of the most potent and dangerous chemicals known – and they remain in the fabrics we live with.  This becomes part of the chemical soup we’re all exposed to each day, and which we believe is changing us in many ways, not all for the better.  We don’t just absorb synthetic chemicals one at a time during the day.  We’re exposed to hundreds of chemicals as a result of using a wide array of consumer products, many of which contain the same chemicals as are found in fabrics.  We are exposed to a variety of stressors – and textiles are one of the stressors, among others such as:

  • Automotive exhaust
  • Cleaning products
  • Chemicals in treated water
  • Cosmetics
  • Environmental pollution
  • Food
  • Insect repellents
  •  Prescription drugs
  • solvents
  • Ultraviolet radiation

As we absorb tiny amounts of chemicals repeatedly from  multiple sources, they might add up until they reach a tipping point.  Add to this what Drs. Anita and Paul Clement call the “black hole” of ignorance about a key fact in toxicology:  that toxins make each other worse.  “A small dose of mercury that kills 1 in 100 rats and a dose of aluminum that kills 1 in 100 rats, when combined, have a striking effect: all the rats die.“

So how can you, as an individual, change it – how can one person do anything to change the world? Margaret Meade says that committed people, banding together, is the only thing that really
ever has.

The writer Fritjof Capra says that we need to be governed “by a metaphor that says we are part of a continuously evolving and interrelated system”.  We need to start thinking of the world as a system, a cyclical system of interconnections, a web of connections— literally “the web of life.”

And it must be understood that this is a long-term project, not to be mistaken for a marketing trend like one furnishings manufacturer told us. (“Green?” he said. “Yes, well, we did that last year, but we’re doing something really exciting this year!”) In fact, green is only a part of it, a central part that must deal with environmentally benign materials and processes, restoration, recycling, reclaiming:  all those things we have to do to remedy the damage we’ve done to the natural environment and to ourselves in it.

Hope for the future springs from witnessing small reversals of the damage we have caused,  as Victor Papanek says in The Green Imperative.    These times, he says,  also call for a sense of optimism and a willingness to act without full understanding but with a faith in the effect of small individual actions on the global picture.

Remember that each time you purchase something,  you’re ensuring that the product you bought will keep being produced, in the same  way.  If you support new ideas, find creative ways to use something or insist that what you buy meets certain parameters, then new research will be done to
meet consumer demand and new processes will be developed that don’t leave a legacy of destruction.

Lots of people, individually and together, made a difference in the way our foods are grown and processed.  Organic foods went from gnarly to beautiful, and now we’re becoming healthier and our land is being replenished.  It can be done if the individual believes in his own importance, and believes that each purchasing decision is a vote – for clean air and water and safe products – a vote literally for our future.  Or not.


[1]
Shelton, Suzanne, “Green Marketing and the Death of Curmudgeonly Contrariness”,
GreenBiz, May 19, 2011.

[2]
Kate Rogers, “Why People Opt Against Going Green”, FOXBusiness, November 4,
2011; http://www.foxbusiness.com/personal-finance/2011/11/04/why-people-opt-against-going-green/

[4] “Dioxins and Dioxin-like Persistent Organic Pollutants in Textiles and Chemicals in the
Textile Sector”  Bostjan Krizanec and Alenka Majcen Le Marechal,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Smetanova 17, SI-2000
Maribor, Slovenia; January 24, 2006

[5]  Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2010,
67:263-269 doi: 10.1136/oem.2009.049817
SEE ALSO:  http://www.breastcancer.org/risk/new_research/20100401b.jsp
AND http://www.medpagetoday.com/Oncology/BreastCancer/19321

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Global Organic Textile Standard

2 09 2011

In the 1980’s, producers of eco-friendly textiles generally worked under the umbrella of  organic food associations.  However, they found that the food association was impractical for textile producers because  although the growing and harvesting of food and fiber crops were similar, the processing of fibers in preparation to make fabric varied widely.  The organic food associations were concerned primarily with food related issues.   In addition, organic fabrics and fashion was being shown in specialized stores rather than in organic food markets.

In 2002, at the Intercot Conference in Dusseldorf, Germany, a workshop with representatives of organic cotton producers, the textile industry, consumers, standard organizations and certifiers discussed the need for a harmonized and world-wide recognized organic textile standard.  The many different standards, they felt, was causing confusion and acting as a obstacle to international exchange and recognition of organic fabrics.  As a result of this workshop, the  “International Working Group on Global Organic Textile Standard“ (IWG) was founded, with an aim to work on the codification of various regional approaches and to develop a set of global standards.  Members of this group included Internationale Verband der Naturtextilwirtschaft e. V.“ (IVN),  the  Organic Trade Association (United States), the Soil Association (England)  and Japan Organic Cotton Association  (Japan).

In 2006, their work was published as the Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) , which has since evolved into the leading set of criteria in the field of organic textile processing.  A main achievement of this group was the ability to compromise and to find even consensus for points that were considered to be ‘non-negotiable’.   Not all standard organizations that participated the process ended up with signing the agreement of the Working Group.

From the GOTS website:  “Since its introduction in 2006 by the International Working Group on Global Organic Textile Standard, the GOTS has gained universal recognition, led to abolishment of numerous previous similar standards of limited application and has become – with more than 2750 certified textile processing, manufacturing and trading operators in more than 50 countries and an abundance of certified products – the leading standard for the processing of textile goods using organic fibers, including environmentally oriented technical as well as social criteria.”  This is a major accomplishment, especially given the global nature of the textile supply chain.

Beside the technical requirements a certifier has to meet to become approved by the IWG for GOTS certification, it is also a prerequisite that he discontinues use of any other certification. This measure was chosen to support the goal of a harmonized Global Standard and related certification system that allows certified suppliers to export their organic textiles with one certificate recognized in all relevant sales markets in order to strengthen the awareness and market for organic textiles.

The following standards have become completely harmonized with GOTS:

  • North American Fiber Standard – Organic Trade Association (USA)
  • Guidelines ‘Naturtextil IVN Zertifiziert’ – International Association Natural Textile Industry (Germany)
  • Standards for Processing and Manufacture of Organic Textiles – Soil Association (England)
  • EKO Sustainable Textile Standard – Control Union Certifications (formerly SKAL)
  • Standards for Organic Textiles – Ecocert (France)
  • Organic Textile Standard – ICEA (Italy)
  • Standards for Organic Textiles – ETKO (Turkey)
  • Organic Fiber Standards – Oregon Tilth (USA)
  • Standards for Processing of Organic Textile Products – OIA (Argentina)

One member of the IWG offers beside GOTS as their basic standard one further standard for certification that complies with GOTS but contains some additional requirements:

  • Guidelines ‘Naturtextil IVN Zertifiziert BEST’ – International Association Natural Textile Industry (Germany)

GOTS aims to define a universal standard for organic fabrics—from harvesting the raw materials, through environmentally and socially responsible manufacturing, to labeling—in order to provide credible assurance to consumers. Standards apply to fiber products, yarns, fabrics and clothes and cover the production, processing, manufacturing, packaging, labeling, exportation, importation and distribution of all natural fiber products.   GOTS provides a continuous quality control and certification system from field to shelf.  A GOTS certified fabric is therefore much more than just a textile which is made from organic fibers.

Why is this a big deal?  As we’ve said before, it’s like taking organic apples, and cooking them with Red Dye #2, preservatives, emulsifiers, and stabilizers –  you can’t call the finished product organic applesauce.  Same is true with fabrics, which contain as much as 27% (by weight) synthetic chemicals.

And in today’s world, with the complex supply chain that multinational companies like Wal-Mart, Nordstrom and Levi’s use, this is a very big deal.   As companies attempt to get a handle on their suppliers and maintain quality control, the list of universally understood environmental criteria in GOTS  is coming in handy. While consumers probably won’t see a GOTS tag on conventional cotton jeans, some companies are asking suppliers to use only GOTS-certified dyes and chemicals on conventional cotton clothing.  In fact, the companies mentioned above, along with Banana Republic, H&M and Target are just some of the companies that plan to use GOTS certification for their organic products.

The GOTS standard includes:

  • Harvesting criteria which requires the use of from 70% to 95% organic fiber.
    • As the GOTS website explains, “As it is to date technically nearly impossible to produce any textiles in an industrial way without the use of chemical inputs, the approach is to define criteria for low impact and low residual natural and synthetic chemical inputs.   So in addition to requiring that   all inputs have to meet basic requirements on toxicity and biodegradability GOTS also  prohibits entire classes of chemicals, rather than calling out specific prohibited chemicals.  What that means is that instead of prohibiting, for example lead and cadmium (and therefore allowing other heavy metals by default), GOTS prohibits ALL heavy metals.  Here’s the Version 3.0 list:
SUBSTANCE GROUP CRITERIA
Aromatic solvents Prohibited
Chlorophenols (such as TeCP, PCP) Prohibited
Complexing agents and surfactants Prohibited are: All APEOS, EDTA, DTPA, NTA, LAS, a-MES
Fluorocarbons Prohibited (i.e., PFOS, PFOA)
Formaldehyde and short-chain aldehydes Prohibited
GMO’s Prohibited
Halogenated solvents Prohibited
Heavy Metals Prohibited
Inputs containing functional nanoparticles Prohibited
Inputs with halogen containing compounds Prohibited
Organotin compounds Prohibited
Plasticizers (i.e., Phthalates, Bisphenol A and all others with endocrine disrupting potential) Prohibited
Quaternary ammonium compounds Prohibited: DTDMAC, DSDMAC and DHTDM
  • Environmental manufacturing practices, with a written environmental policy, must be in place.
  • Environmentally safe processing requirements, which includes wastewater treatment internally before discharge to surface waters, must be in place.  This pertains to pH and  temperature as well as to biological and chemical residues in the water.
  • Environmentally sound packaging requirements are in place; PVC in packaging is prohibited, paper must be post-consumer recycled or certified according to FSC or PEFC.
  • Labor practices are interpreted in accordance with the International Labor Organization (ILO – no forced, bonded, or slave labor; workers have the right to join or form trade unions and to bargain collectively; working conditions are safe and hygienic; there must be no new recruitment of child labor (and for those companies where children are found to be working, provisions must be made to enable him to attend and remain in quality education until no longer a child);  wages paid must meet, at a minimum, national legal standards or industry benchmarks, whichever is higher; working hours are not excessive and inhumane treatment is prohibited.
  • GOTS has a dual system of quality assurance consisting of on-side annual inspection (including possible unannounced inspections based on risk assessment of the operations) and residue testing.
  • There are requirements surrounding exportation, importation and distribution of all natural fibers.

In June, 2011, The Global Organic Textile Standard launched an open comment period on it’s first revision draft of the new GOTS version 3.0.  Following this announcement, IFOAM collected comments from its members and related stakeholders in order to shape the position of the movement towards the Global Organic Textile Standard.

A total of 36 persons and/or organizations sent their comments to IFOAM.  Two important issues were raised:  90% of the respondents were against the use of nanotechnologies in organic textiles (5% abstention, 5% in favor),  and 86 % were in principle against the use of synthetic chemicals in textiles labeled as organic (3% abstention, 11% in favor). Based on the feedback provided, IFOAM submitted detailed comments to GOTS and proposed:

  • to further restrict the use of synthetic substances, possibly switching to a positive list of allowed substances, instead of a list of forbidden ones.
  • to add requirements to ban the deliberate use of nano-technologies in the textile processing.

GOTS is a positive ethical choice among both consumers and producers and is the most comprehensive in terms of addressing environmental issues.  Although it is difficult to obtain, it can lead to important strategic business benefits.

However, the GOTS certification applies to only natural fibers, so it cannot be applied to polyester or other synthetic fibers, which are by far the most popular fiber choice in the U.S. today.  In addition, it does not directly address the carbon footprint of an organization or its production practices.  (Please note: the choice of a fabric made of organically raised natural fibers has been shown to have a much lower carbon impact than any fabric made of synthetic fibers.  We touched on that in our some of our blog posts; click here and here to read them.)





Certifications: Oeko Tex

28 07 2011

I have an apology to make:  I made a statement last week that turns out to be incorrect, based on experience from years ago.  I said

“it’s not unusual to find a GOTS certification logo on a product – because it’s hard to get, and those who have it certainly want to display the logo.  But the certification may apply only to the organic fibers – the logo itself is not specific as to what is being certified.”

Laurie Lemmlie-Leung, of Sapphire International, Ltd, which is a GOTS certified terry mill, pointed out that in their experience,  “If we do not have an approved “GOTS Product Specification Plan” and transaction certificates showing that all the inputs are also GOTS certified, then we cannot use the GOTS label on the product.”  And that is indeed the case:  a GOTS logo on any product means that all processing up to the final product is GOTS certified.  So if GOTS certified cotton yarn is being sold, it can display the logo.  However, if that yarn is used to weave a fabric in a non-certified facility, the final fabric cannot display the logo.

So when you see a GOTS logo on a product, you can rest assured that the entire supply chain has been certified.

Now, back to discussion of certifications:  Before giving a summary of the main points of each of the certifications which deal with fiber processing (i.e., weaving), it’s important to remember that most of these certification programs are in business – so it costs money to achieve the certification – sometimes it costs a LOT of money.  In addition there is the burden of documentation, which increases administrative costs for the manufacturer.

Cradle to Cradle and GreenGuard can cost quite a bit, so when you look on the web sites to find which products have these certifications,  you see mostly large, well established companies which can afford to absorb the certification costs.  On the GreenGuard website, for example, it lists 1943 individual products, but all 1943 products are manufactured by only 20 large, well-known companies.  Sometimes smaller manufacturers decide not to pay the costs of certification, even though they may be doing everything “by the book”, because they’re operating on a shoestring.  Unfortunately, the many unethical claims make third party certification a requirement.

In addition to certifications, there are many new “green guides” on the internet which purport to list green products.  Some are valiantly trying to make order out of chaos, while others are simply adding to the confusion.  Of these, a basic listing may (or may not) be free, but any additional bells and whistles costs money.  So green products may be specially featured or identified (sometimes as “best”) because the manufacturer has paid for the spotlight.  The same is true of television shows which purport to cover new green products.  We have been approached several times by television programs featuring a well-known personality who would wax eloquently about our fabrics – if only we were to pay the right price.

What does this all mean?  Do your own homework!  Most of these “experts” have no more knowledge than you do.  And again, certifications provide a reliable yardstick to determine quality standards.

The third party certifications which cover textile processing and/or final products which you’ll see most often include:

  • Oeko Tex
  • GreenGuard
  • Cradle 2 Cradle by MBDC
  • Global Organic Textile Standard
  • Global Recycle Standard
  • SMART Sustainable Textile Standard

These are the certifications you’re most likely to run into, and they are very different.  So different, in fact, that we’ll take a few weeks to explore what each one tells us.

This week, we’ll start with one of the oldest certifications:  Oeko Tex.

Oeko Tex is an independent, third party certifier that offers two certifications for textiles:

  1. Oeko-Tex 100 (for products)
  2. Oeko-Tex 1000 (for production sites/factories).

Products satisfying the criteria for Oeko-Tex 100 which are produced in an Oeko-Tex 1000 certified facility may use the Oeko-Tex 100Plus mark, which is simply a combination of the two.

Oeko Tex was founded in 1992, by the Austrian Textile Research Intitute (OTI) and the German Research Institute Hohenstein,  to provide an objective and reliable product label for consumers.  Its aim is to ensure that products posed no risk to health.

Oeko Tex Standard 100

The Oeko-Tex Standard 100 standard is concerned primarily with health and safety of textile products – it tests only the end product.  The processing is not addressed – for example, wastewater treatment is not included.   It is NOT an organic certification and products bearing this mark are not necessarily made from organically grown fibers. (Note:  When you see the logo, make sure that the test number is quoted (No. 11-20489 in the image above)  and the test institute is named (Shirley is the institute which tested the product).)

Textiles considered for this standard are classified into four categories, and each category has different test values for chemicals allowed in the product:

  • Product Class I: Products for Babies – all textile products and materials used to manufacture such textile products for children up to the age of 36 months (leather clothing is excepted)
  • Product Class II: Products with Direct Contact to Skin – worn articles of which a large surface touches the skin (i.e. underwear, shirts, pants)
  • Product Class III: Products without Direct Contact to Skin – articles of which only a small part of their surface touches the skin (i.e. linings, stuffings)

Textile products bearing the Oeko-Tex 100 certification mark:

  • Do not contain allergenic dye-stuffs and dye stuffs that form carcinogenic arylamines.
  • Have been tested for pesticides and chlorinated phenoles.
  • Have been tested for the release of heavy metals under artificial perspiration conditions.
  • Formaldehyde is banned; other aldehyde limits are significantly lower than the required legal limits.
  • Have a skin friendly pH.
  • Are free from chloro-organic carriers.
  • Are free from biologically active finishes.

The certification process includes thorough testing for a lengthy list of chemicals, including lead, antimony, arsenic, phthalates, pesticides, and chlorinated phenols. The official table of limits for tested chemicals may be found on the Oeko-Tex website.  Specifically banned are:

  • AZO dyes
  • Carcinogenic and allergy-inducing dyes
  • Pesticides
  • Chlorinated phenols
  • Chloro-organic benzenes and toluenes
  • Extractable heavy metals
  • Phthalates in baby articles
  • Organotin compounds(TBT and DBT)
  • Emissions of volatile components

Certification may be given to a finished product (such as a shirt), or to individual components (such as yarn, or fabric).

Oeko-Tex Standard 1000

The Oeko-Tex 1000 is a certification for environmentally-friendly textile production.
The goal of the Oeko-Tex 1000 Standard is to be “an evaluation of the environmental performance of textile production sites and products and to document independently that certain environmental measures are undertaken and a certain level achieved.”

The evaluation process includes considerations for:

  • environmental impact: energy consumption, whether materials used are renewable or non-renewable, and the overall impact of the space utilized
  • global impact: use of fossil fuels, use of ozone-depleting chemicals regional impact: VOC’s, water contamination, acidification of soil and water from fossil fuel use, emissions (often from chlorine bleaching)
  • local effects: emissions, workplace contamination, noise, use of dangerous chemical products

The mark is not applied directly to products, but may be used by the production site (for example, on its letterhead and official documents). The “local effects” consideration does NOT include an evaluation of labor practices and is not meant to be an indicator of whether a production site is following fair labor practices.

Oeko-Tex 100Plus

This label may be used on products that have met the Oeko-Tex 100 Standard and are also produced in a facility that meets the Oeko-Tex 1000 Standard.

So, these are the important points to keep in mind when you see the Oeko Tex logo:

  1. Oeko Tex 100 is product specific – they don’t look at processing (i.e., water treatment, workers rights, emissions, sludge), it only means that the finished product (fabric, yarn, clothing, etc.) has limit values for chemicals which are below the threshold limits on the Oeko Tex list, with many specifically prohibited.
  2. Oeko Tex 1000 is site specific, and documents that certain environmental standards are met, but these do not include workers rights issues.
  3. Oeko Tex 100+ means that the site meets environmental standards and the product itself is safe to use.




Certifications – part 1

22 07 2011

If you agree with me that a third party certification is a way to give us the most unbiased, substantive  information about the environmental performance of a fabric, let’s look at third party certifications which are on the market and which test finished textiles.  It’s important to know what each certification is telling us, both to keep our frustration levels manageable and to be able to extract useful, trustworthy information.  But before we get to individual certifications, there are several issues that are unique to fabrics, which we should mention first.

The first issue has to do with the fact that people often think about what the fabric is made of and totally forget the long and complex process that has to happen to turn the raw material into a soft, smooth finished fabric  –  I mean, really, do you actually think that the cotton boll which you see in the picture is transformed into your blouse without some kind of serious work?  What about oil?  Think of crude oil and your new sheets – what do you think has to have happened to that crude to make it acceptable for your bedroom?

The market is absolutely rife with claims about organic cotton – and believe me, I have absolutely nothing against organic cotton.  But the focus (by marketers and consumers alike) is that if it’s made of organic cotton, then the product is sustainable.  That’s far from the truth.  We like to use the analogy of  “organic applesauce” – that is, if you take organic apples, then cook them with preservatives, emulsifiers, Red Dye #2, stabilizers and any number of other additives – do you end up with organic applesauce?  Just like bread – which is made from wheat which is grown (maybe organically), harvested, ground into flour, mixed with milk, yeast, salt and maybe other things, then baked – fabric undergoes the same type of transformation.

So the certifications which are often found on fabrics may only pertain to the FIBER, and not to the processing.  What they mean is the fabric started out with organic fibers – but the processing, like the organic applesauce mentioned above, results in fabric that contains a high proportion, by weight, of synthetic chemicals (such as lead or mercury, formaldehyde, chlorine, or phthalates).

So if only the fiber is certified,  you can assume that the chemicals used in processing may contain some of the highly toxic chemicals usually found in solvents, dyestuffs, and finishes.  And you can assume that the excess chemicals were released in the effluent and are now circulating in our groundwater.  Nor is any mention made of fair wages and safe working conditions.   In other words, a fabric made with “organic cotton”, if processed conventionally, is full of chemicals which may be prohibited in a truly organic fabric and which are known to cause all kinds of bad things to human bodies (especially really little bodies), and those harmful chemicals, released in untreated effluent, are now contributing to our own chemical body burden.

Besides the proliferation of certifications, further muddying of the waters happens because the textile supply chain is one of the most complex in all of industry – and some of the certification agencies can certify each step in the process.  In other words, each end product can be certified.  So if we deconstruct a piece of fabric, it’s possible (indeed necessary to certify the final product) to  have certification at each stage:   (1) growing and harvesting of organic fibers  (2) ginning or other preparation of the fibers to make them suitable for use in spinning;  (3)  spinning of the fibers into yarns; (4) weaving of the yarns into fabric   (5) dyeing and/or finishing and (6) final product (i.e., blouse, tablecloth, etc.).  So it’s not unusual to find a GOTS certification logo on a product – because it’s hard to get, and those who have it certainly want to display the logo.  But the certification may apply only to the organic fibers – the logo itself is not specific as to what is being certified.

It’s quite common to find  “organic cotton” fabrics  in the market – in other words, fabrics made of organic fibers.  But unless you do some probing, it’s common to find that the “organic” part pertains only to the fiber, while the fabric was made conventionally.

Certification agencies (the companies that verify the fibers/fabric meets the standards set for in the certification)  for fibers and textiles  include:

  • USDA organic

    United States Department of Agriculture, National Organic Program (NOP):  this logo certifies that the fiber is organic –  only the fiber.  According to a new Department of Agriculture memorandum dated May 20, 2011, textiles and textile products labeled as “organic” must be third-party certified, and all fibers identified as “organic” contained in the textile product must be certified organic to the NOP regulations. The policy memo confirms that textile products that are produced in accordance with the the Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) may be sold as ‘organic’ in the U.S. though they may not refer to NOP certification or carry the USDA organic seal.

  • Soil Association Certification Limited (SA Certification) is the UK’s largest organic certification body. It’s also the only certification body linked to a committed charity, promoting organic food and farming.  As a member of the Global Standard GmbH, the managing body of the Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS), the Soil Association now uses the GOTS certification for all new textile products.
  • OneCert:  OneCert provides organic certification worldwide. Certification and inspection programs include the US National Organic Program (NOP), European Organic Regulations (EU 2092/91), Quebec Organic Standards (CAQ), Japan Agricultural Standards (JAS), IFOAM, and Bio Suisse. Services include organic certification, organic inspection, export certificates, transaction certificates, on-line record keeping, answers to certification questions, and presentations of organic topics.
  • Peterson Control Union:  Control Union is a global one-stop-shop for a range of services in all aspects of the logistics chain of many commodities, including certification programs.   It certifies to the standards of The Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS), and the Organic Exchange.
  • The Institute for Marketcology (IMO): IMO is one of the first and most renowned international agencies for inspection, certification and quality assurance of eco-friendly products. IMO offers certification for organic production and handling according to the European Regulation (EU) Nr. 2092/91, GOTS, Organic Exchange and for The International Association of Natural Textile Industry, known as IVN.  IVN is an alliance of more than 70 businesses involved at some level in the textile production chain, with the goal of countering abuses by having a clearly defined “ecologically oriented and socially accountable business practice.”    If a company meets their standards they are awarded a quality seal, which is called Naturtextil IVN certified or certified Best.  According to the IVN, GOTS is the minimum standard that distinguishes ecotextiles.  Read more here.

The third party certifications which we think every conscious consumer of fabric should be aware includes:  Oeko-Tex, GOTS, C2C, GreenGuard, Global  Recycle Standard and SMART.  Each one has its own set of standards and we’ll take a look at them next week.